Bibliography: Cautious, fearful children and behavioral inhibition

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Updates February 2019

Dipietro JA, Voegtline KM, Pater HA, Costigan KA. Predicting child temperament and behavior from the fetus. Dev Psychopathol. 2018 Aug;30(3):855-870. doi: 10.1017/S0954579418000482. PubMed PMID: 30068417.

Troller-Renfree SV, Buzzell GA, Pine DS, Henderson HA, Fox NA. Consequences of Not Planning Ahead: Reduced Proactive Control Moderates Longitudinal Relations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 8. pii: S0890-8567(19)30006-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2018.06.040. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30768398.

OBJECTIVE:Children with the temperament of Behavioral Inhibition (BI) face increased risk for developing an anxiety disorder later in life. However, not all children with BI manifest anxiety symptoms, and cognitive-control-strategy use may moderate the pathway between BI and anxiety. Individuals vary widely in the strategy used to instantiate control; the present study examined whether a more planful style of cognitive control (i.e. proactive control) or a more impulsive strategy of control (i.e. reactive control) moderates the association between early BI and later anxiety symptoms.

METHOD: Participants were part of a longitudinal study examining the relations between BI (measured at 2-3 years) and later anxiety symptoms (measured at 13 years). Cognitive control strategy use was assessed at age 13 using the AX variant of the Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT).

RESULTS: BI in toddlerhood significantly predicted increased use of a more reactive cognitive control style in adolescence. Additionally, cognitive control strategy moderated the relation between BI and anxious symptoms, such that reliance on a more reactive strategy predicted higher levels of anxiety for children high in BI.

CONCLUSION The present study is the first to identify the specific control strategy that increases risk for anxiety. Thus, is it not cognitive control per se, but the specific control strategy children adopt that may increase risk for anxiety later in life. These findings have important implications for future evidence-based interventions given that they suggest an emphasis reducing reactive cognitive control and increasing proactive cognitive control may reduce anxious cognition

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Bishop, G., Spence, S. H., & Mcdonald, C. (2003). Can Parents and Teachers Provide a Reliable and Valid Report of Behavioral Inhibition  Child Development  74(6), 1899–1917.

Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S. J., & Spence, S. H. (2010). The assessment of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: the revised Preschool Anxiety Scale. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53, 39(3), 400–9. doi:10.1080/15374411003691701

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Barker, T. V., Reeb-Sutherland, B., & Fox, N. A. (2014). Individual Differences in Fear Potentiated Startle in Behaviorally Inhibited Children. Developmental Psychobiology, 56(1), 133–141.

Barker, T. V, Reeb-Sutherland, B., Degnan, K. a, Walker, O. L., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Henderson, H. a, … Fox, N. a. (2015). Contextual startle responses moderate the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety in middle childhood. Psychophysiology, 52(11), 1544–9. doi:10.1111/psyp.12517

Brooker, R. J., & Buss, K. A. (2015). Toddler Fearfulness is linked to Individual Differences in Error-Related Negativity During Preschool. Developmental Neuropsychology, 39(1), 1–8. doi:10.1080/87565641.2013.826661.Toddler

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Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S. J., & Spence, S. H. (2010). The assessment of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: the revised Preschool Anxiety Scale. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53, 39(3), 400–9. doi:10.1080/15374411003691701

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Henderson, H. a, Pine, D. S., & Fox, N. a. (2015). Behavioral inhibition and developmental risk: a dual-processing perspective. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 40(1), 207–24. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.189

Hutt, R. L., Buss, K. A., & Kiel, E. J. (2013). Caregiver Protective Behavior, Toddler Fear and Sadness, and Toddler Cortisol Reactivity in Novel Contexts.Infancy : The Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies,18(5), 708–728.

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Kertz, S. J., Belden, A. C., Tillman, R., & Luby, J. (2015). Cognitive Control Deficits in Shifting and Inhibition in Preschool Age Children are Associated with Increased Depression and Anxiety Over 7.5 Years of Development. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi:10.1007/s10802-015-0101-0ogy, 43(6), 1055–65. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9962-x

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Kim, J., Klein, D. N., Olino, T. M., Dyson, M. W., Dougherty, L. R., & Durbin, C. E. (2011). Psychometric Properties of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire in Preschool Children. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(6), 545–555.

Lazarus, R. S., Dodd, H. F., Majdand, M., Vente, W. De, Morris, T., Byrow, Y., … Hudson, J. L. (2016). The relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders, 190, 784–791. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.032

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Mian, N. D., Carter, A. S., Pine, D. S., Wakschlag, L. S., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2015). Development of a novel observational measure for anxiety in young children: The Anxiety Dimensional Observation Scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 56(9), 1017–1025.

Morales, S., Pérez-Edgar, K. E., & Buss, K. a. (2015). Attention Biases Towards and Away from Threat Mark the Relation between Early Dysregulated Fear and the Later Emergence of Social Withdrawal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(6), 1067–78. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9963-9

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