Why drawing in kindergarten is very important

Many opportunities for free drawing (with some more structured tasks) has many advantages

Getting involved in drawing projects trains/develops a child's ability and willingness to:

  • sit and work at a project,
  • explore different ways of drawing lines to create shapes and patterns 
  • arrange lines and shapes on a page to create a picture 

Time spent drawing also helps to develop the strength and coordination in the shoulder, wrist and fingers for needed for engaging in handwriting tasks. 

The only way to improve finger action for handwriting

 is to practice drawing short lines and small shapes. 

Other fine motor tasks will not do the trick.

This is because motor learning and strength training are very specific - you learn and improve on tasks that you practice. This is called training specificity.

Drawing practice develops movement control 

Movement control needed for drawing and handwriting includes: 

Using shoulder/elbow actions for drawing long lines, and moving the hand across the page when writing.

shoulder 3.jpg   shoulder 4.jpg

Lines down and cross Gr 1.jpg

Using effective finger movement for drawing short lines and small shapes  

R 5y 9m big fish and little fishes.jpg   R 18-02-14 Circles_1.jpg

 

Drawing practice improves basic graphic abilities needed for learning to print letters

Take a look at the picture below, drawn by Max in kindergarten. You will see many different graphic elements drawn with a fair amount of precision, that are well spaced and sized and have several fluent  short and long lines in many directions. 

M 6y pirate ship.jpg

Max's drawing incorporates all the graphic elements needed for learning to handwrite letters and numbers.

  • long and short lines in different directions;
  • small well formed circles and other shapes; 
  • fairly accurate sizing and spacing of lines and shapes;

In addition Max planned  the the placement and size of the different elements before he started the drawing so that they pirate ship fitted onto the page 

This next picture was drawn Mary who has poor graphic abilities and associated coordination difficulties. Long lines are jagged, spacing is poor with crowding and overlapping of lines, and sizing is erratic. 

GR R child 6 many elelements crowding.jpg

Drawing a Z inside a small box

The term basic graphic abilities  refers to the child's ability to draw straight and curved lines of different lengths and curvatures,  in different directions and in different positions on the page to produce a desired outcome.

This involves:
  • having an idea of the desired outcome (a goal);
  • translating the idea into a motor plan;
  • translating the motor plan into a commands to the muscles to produce the movements required to achieve the goal. 
To write a Z that fits inside a small block, the child needs to "know" that a capital Z has three lines joined together. To fit the Z inside the block involves planning a horizontal line of the right length which starts in the right place, followed by a diagonal lines in the right direction and angle ending near the bottom corner of the block. This must be followed by another horizontal line of the right length. 
The sequence is: start near the top left hand corner of the block, produce a horizontal line that ends near the top right hand corner, followed by a diagonal line that ends near the bottom left and corner and lastly make another horizontal line that ends near the bottom right hand corner. 
Roan 5y 6m: Fairly good control of sequence of strokes needed to form a Z, but the direction of the diagonal line needs work. 
 
 R 5y 9m Z_1_0.jpg
 
Will 4y 6m: Not able to reproduce a sequence of strokes to write a Z in a reliable manner

W 4y 6m Z_1.jpg

What are the basic graphic abilities 

The ability to draw relatively smooth and straight lines of different lengths and in different directions 

To draw a long long horizontal lines the hand holding the marker is moved across the page using a combined shoulder/elbow movement.  Ben (Gr R, second term) draws relatively straight and smooth horizontal lines. 

 L-grR-lines-between-shapes.jpg    
 
Aziz (Gr R, second term) draws lines are not smooth and have many sharp changes in direction. 
 
 K-GrR-horizontal-lines_1.jpg        Gr R first term person 4. sm.jpg
 
Roan's at 6y is able to draw relatively straight lines in all direction. Some directions are more challenging than others. Her ability to control the direction and length of lines is reflected in her drawings. 
  R-6y-sun-rays-1.jpg    Roan 5y 9m hoase that turned into a mandala_1.jpg
 

Ability to draw smooth curved lines and circles of different sizes

Roan (Gr R, first term) has good control over her drawing of curved shapes. The lines are smooth and confident. 

 R 18-02-14 Circles_1.jpg   R 5 y elephant - with prompts.jpg

This Gr R learner has difficulty drawing curved and straight line shapes with a smooth action.

K-GrR-copying shapes_1_1.jpg

Ability to draw/copy squares and rectangles

Children with good graphic skills can draw/copy rectangles and squares of a of a particular size and position on the page. Roan is able to copy a square and rectangles with attention to size and orientation. In this example her ability to copy a rectangle is better than her drawing of a square.  

     R-6y-copying-rectangle_1.jpg      R-6y-copying-rectangle-2_1.jpg


Here you see Will's (4y 6m) attempt to copy a square and a rectangle. He has good control over drawing vertical and horizontal lines, but is not able to pre-plan the length of the lines to match the example.  His various attempts at drawing provide the practice he needs to translate the visual information about line length into a motor plan to reproduce the lines.     

L-46-6m-copy-rectangles-2.jpg

 

Ability to draw a rectangle with the eyes closed

Children with good graphic skills can draw rectangles with their eyes closed. To be able to do this the child needs to pre-plan the movements, and keep in mind the length of the first and second lines in order to complete the drawing accurately. Children who tend to rely on ongoing visual feedback to control their movements can often draw a rectangle with the eyes closed and will produce lines that are in fact straighter and more fluent when over-reliance on visual monitoring is prevented. 

  R-6-years-rectangles-eyes-closed_1.jpg    

Will (4y 6m) also managed to draw a rectangle after two failed attempts

L-4y-6m-rectangles-eyes-closed_1.jpg

Ability to combine the basic lines and shapes

Learners with good graphic skills will combine shapes and lines to  represent people, animals and objects. This involves careful planning of the size and position of the lines and shapes relative to one another. 

  Robot of rectangles.jpg    R 5y 2m ducks 2_0.jpg
 
 
       

Ability to draw small shapes using effective finger movements

Children with good graphic skills will incorporate small shapes into their drawings.

R 5y 9m big fish and little fishes.jpg     Roan 5y 10m small curved shapes_1.jpg

Children acquire the basic graphic skills through dedicated practice

Young children with good graphic skills have usually spent quite a lot of time drawing over a number of years. This experience provides the child with the necessary practice to acquire the sensorimotor control needed for the basic graphic skills. Importantly children with good drawing skills have learned to use a do-check-do approach to improving their motor skills. 

Learning to draw a circle - a case study in drawing development over several years

Children learn to draw closed curved shapes at a very early age. Circular marks are a very prominent feature of toddler drawings. 

T (2 years) spiral drawings

 T 2 years.jpg    T 2y circular scribbles.JPG
 
Tadpole people with circular shapes are a common feature of early people drawings, drawn repeatedly over the course of at least a year. 
 
L 3y 6m 3.jpg    R 4y 6m person.jpg
 
 
However, in order to draw a well shaped circle the child needs to pay attention to the shape that has been drawn, notice how it differs from a well formed circle and make repeated attempts to draw  good circles.  
 

Gr circles 1.jpg    

 

 


Drawing is about pattern making

Drawing activities allow children to explore color, line curvature, length and direction, how lines can be used to draw shapes and how how shapes can be combined in different ways to make patterns and represent people, animals and objects. 

Drawing helps children to develop the  visual-spatial skills needed for mathematics. Pattern making is also an important aspect of developing mathematical ideas in young children.  


     R 5y 2m  ducks.jpg    .  

Drawing provides a way to express feelings, relationships and events 

Drawing provides children with ways to represent ideas, things and people,  record events and express their ideas and feelings. 

R 5y daddy when he is very sick.jpg

Lily 6 years: Daddy when he is very sick 

  people_1.JPG

Will 5 year:  My family